Kamis, 08 November 2012

story of borobudur



 HISTORY OF INCORPORATION BOROBUDURBorobudur is a Buddhist temple, situated in the village of Borobudur Magelang district, Central Java, was built by King Samaratungga, one of the king of the ancient Mataram kingdom, descendant of Sailendra dynasty. The name of Borobudur is a combination of words and Budur Bara. Bara from Sanskrit means temple or monastery complex. While Budur comes from the word meaning beduhur above, thereby Borobudur means monastery on the hill. Meanwhile, according to another means a mountain having terraces (budhara), while other sources say that Borobudur means monastery on the high place.
Punden terraces Borobudur-shaped building comprises 10 levels, measuring 123 x 123 meters. Height 42 meters before being renovated and 34.5 meters after the renovation because the lowest level is used as a barrier. This Buddhist temple has 1460 relief panels and 504 Buddha effigies in its complex. Six lowest level of a square and three levels above and a circular highest level of Buddhist stupa facing to the west.Each level represents the stages of human life. In accordance schools of Mahayana Buddhism, every person who wants to reach the level of Buddha must through every level of life is.

Kamadhatu, the base of Borobudur, symbolizing human beings that are still bound by lust.
Rupadhatu, four levels above it, symbolizing human beings that have set themselves free from lust but still bound manner and form. At these levels, a statue of Buddha placed open.
Arupadhatu, three levels above where the Buddhist stupa placed in the holes. Symbolizing man who has been free from lust, appearance, and shape.
Arupa, the top of which symbolizes nirvana, where Buddha is residing.
Each level has reliefs that will be read coherently runs clockwise (towards the left of the entrance of the temple). In the reliefs of Borobudur tells of a legendary story, a variety of story content, among other reliefs there on the Hindu epic Ramayana, there are also reliefs Jataka stories. In addition, there are relief panels describing the condition of society at that time. For example, relief of farmers' activity reflecting the advance of agriculture system and relief of sailing boat representing the advance of the cruise, who was based in Bergotta (Semarang).All relief panels in Borobudur temple reflect Buddha's teachings. A Buddhist from India named Atisha, in the 10th century once visited this temple that was built 3 centuries before Angkor Wat in Cambodia and 4 centuries before the Grand Cathedrals in Europe. Thanks to visiting Borobudur and having Buddhist manuscripts from Serlingpa (King of Sriwijaya), Atisha was able to develop Buddhism. He became abbot Vikramasila and taught Tibetans of practicing Dharma. Six manuscripts of Serlingpa was condensed into a core doctrine called "The Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment" or better known as Bodhipathapradipa.
One question that is still unanswered about Borobudur is how the condition around the temple was built and why the temple was found in the buried. Some say Borobudur initially stood dikelilingii swamp and then buried by the eruption of Merapi. It is based on Calcutta inscription reads 'Amawa' means sea of ​​milk. The word which is then interpreted as Merapi lava, possibly buried Borobudur Merapi cold lava. The villages around Borobudur, like there Wanurejo Karanganyar and activities of people make crafts. In addition, the peak watu Kendil an ideal place for a panoramic view from the top of Borobudur. May 27, 2006 earthquake and had no impact at all on the Borobudur temple that can still be visited.Borobudur HistoryAbout three hundred years ago, where the temple is still a grove surrounding what people called Redi Borobudur. For the first time, the name of the script Negarakertagama Borobudur known Prapanca MPU works in 1365 AD, is mentioned about the monastery in Budur. Then in the Jawi script Soil Chronicle (1709-1710) there was news of Mas Fund, a rebel against King Pakubowono I, who was caught in the Redi Borobudur and sentenced to death. Later in 1758, sparked the news about a prince from Yogyakarta, the Prince Monconagoro, who would like to see a statue of a warrior are locked in a cage. In 1814, Thomas Stamford Raffles received the news of his subordinates on a hill covered with carved stones. Based on the news that Raffles sent Cornelius, an admirer of art and history, to clean up that hill. Once cleared for two months with the help of 200 people, the temple became clear and restoration continued in 1825. In 1834, Resident Kedu cleanse the temple again, and in 1842 the temple stupa reviewed for further research.
The name of BorobudurRegarding the name of Borobudur, as many scholars interpret ancient, of which Prof. Dr. Poerbotjoroko explains that the word comes from two words Borobudur Bhoro and Budur. Bhoro derived from Sanskrit which means bihara or dormitories, while Budur word refers to a word that comes from Bali beduhur which means over. This opinion is corroborated by Prof. Dr. WF. Stutterheim who argued that Borobudur means Bihara on top of a hill.
Prof. JG. De Casparis basing on Middle Reef inscription mentioning in this new building, which Sangkala Year: sagara kstidhara taste, or Caka year 746 (824 AD), or during the Sailendra dynasty that glorifies God Indra. In the inscription didapatlah Bhumisambharabhudhara name means place of worship of the ancestors for the souls of his ancestors. How is it going to be a shift in word Borobudur? This happens because the pronunciation of the local community.
Borobudur DevelopmentBorobudur Temple was made during the Buddhist Sailendra dynasty under the leadership of King Samarotthungga. Architecture that creates the temple, by speech communities named Gunadharma. Construction of the temple was completed in 847 AD According to the inscription Kulrak (784M) making of the temple was assisted by a teacher from Ghandadwipa (Bengalore) named Kumaragacya highly respected, and a prince from Kashmir named Visvawarman as an expert advisor in the teachings of Tantric Vajrayana Buddis. The construction of this temple began during the Maha Raja Sri Sanggramadananjaya Dananjaya the title, followed by his son, Samarotthungga, and by her granddaughter, Dyah Ayu Pramodhawardhani.
Before restoration, the Borobudur Temple in ruins just as well as artifacts newly discovered temple. Subsequent restoration by Cornelius at the Raffles and Resident Hatmann, after that period is then performed in 1907-1911 by Theodore van Erp rebuild the order form from the ruins of the temple since the time eaten up the form now. Van Erp actually an engineer building Genie military with the rank of lieutenant, but then interested in studying and learning the ins and outs of the Borobudur Temple, from philosophical to the teachings it contains. For that he was trying to make a comparative study for several years in India. He also went to Sri Lanka to see the composition of the Sanchi stupa summit in Kandy, until van Erp discovered form of Borobudur Temple. While the foundation of philosophy and religion invented by Stutterheim and NJ. Chrome, ie about Buddhism Mahayana Dharma-Yogacara and there is a tendency also mixed with a flow-Tantric Vajrayana.
Research on the composition of the temple and a philosophy that carries itself requires substantial time, especially when linked with other temple buildings are still one family. As well as the Borobudur temple with Mendut Pawon and is geographically located in one lane.

Materials Borobudur TempleBorobudur is the second largest temple after temple Ankor Wat in Cambodia. Borobudur Temple building area 15,129 m2, composed of 55,000 m3 of rock, from 2 million pieces of rocks. The average stone size 25 cm X 10 cm X 15 cm. Long pieces of stone the whole 500 km with a stone total weight of 1.3 million tonnes. The walls of Borobudur Temple surrounded by pictures or relief which is a series of stories in 1460 terususun panel. The length of each panel is 2 feet. If a series of reliefs that stretched the length of approximately 3 km relief entirely. The number of level ten, 1-6 levels of a square, while the round 7-10. Contained statues around the temple amounted to 504 pieces. Temple high above the ground until the end of the stupa was 42 meters, 34.5 meters but now lives after being struck by lightning.
According to the survey-ethnologist Austrian anthropologist Robert von Heine Geldern, the ancestors of Indonesia already familiar with the culture in the Neolithic and Megalithic era from South Vietnam and Cambodia. In the Megalithic era that the ancestors of Indonesia made the tomb of his ancestors as well as a place of worship in the form of tiered pyramid building, getting to the top is getting smaller. One of them found in Lebak Sibedug Leuwiliang Bogor, West Java. There are also similar buildings in Sukuh near Solo, Borobudur Temple also. If we look from a distance, Borobudur will look like the composition of the staircase or a pyramid and a stupa. Unlike the pyramids of Egypt and the Pyramids of Teotihuacan in Mexico Borobudur is another version of the pyramid. Borobudur pyramid form kepunden staircase will not be found in the region and any country, including India. It is one of the advantages of Borobudur temple which is a typical Buddhist architecture in Indonesia.

1 komentar:

  1. penjelasan ini bisa memperbanyak pengetahuan tentang candi Borobudur yang ada di Yogyakarta

    terima kasih.....